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By Takatoh Kohki

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The impurities from these sources soak into the LC gradually. Water from the outside also soaks into the LC through the epoxy glue or through the interface between the epoxy seal and the alignment layer. Therefore, defects caused by these impurities appear several days or months after assembly. The impurities have two major effects on the panels. One is the creation of secondary electric layers that decrease the effective voltage in the LCs, and the other is a weakening of the alignment strength by bonding to the surface of the alignment material.

Several alignment mechanisms exist and align the LC comparably, such as alignment by reorientation of the rubbed polymer, and the grooves on the inorganic surfaces by rubbing, as described by Castellano [3]. The main alignment mechanism of the rubbing process depends on the alignment material. Here, we discuss the alignment mechanism of the rubbed polyimide, which is a standard material used for the mass production of LCD panels. Berreman calculated the anchoring energy by using the elastic energy based on the continuum theory [2].

Their movement also makes scratches on the alignment layer. The number of these defects is influenced by the pressure during assembly. At high pressures, the defects around the spacers increase, and at a low pressures, the defects caused by scratches increase. To eliminate light leakage from the spacer beads, a technique using small pillars made of photoresist to control the cell gap has been developed [53]. Fig. 34 Photomicrograph of the spacers in a TN-LCD (5 V applied). Top view Rubbing direction of top substrate Molecules Rubbing direction of bottom substrate Glass Spaces Molecules Side view Observation by polarizing microscope Polarizer Polarizer, analyzer Light reflection from disclination line around spacer Analyzer Light reflection from disclination line around spacer V=0 V=V Fig.

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