By Jean Audouze, Sylvie Vauclair (auth.)
TO NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS The Formation and the Evolution of subject within the Universe JEAN AUDOUZE lnstitut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France and SYLVIE VA UCLAI R DAPHE, Ohservatoire de Meudon, France and lnstitut d'Astrophysique, Paris D, REIDEL PUBLISHING corporation DORDRECHT: HOLLAND/BOSTON: U. S. A. LONDON: ENGLAND Library of Congre~ Cataloging in ebook information Audouzc. Jean An advent to nuclear astrophysics. (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs; v. 18) En!. and up to date translation of L'Astrophysique nuclt\aire. comprises bibliographies and index. \. Nuclear astrophysics. I. Vauclair, Sylvie, joint writer. II. name. III. sequence. QB464. A9313 1979 523. 01'9'7 79-20752 ISBN-13: 978-90-277-1053-6 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-9477-5 DO I: 10. 1007/978-94-009-9477-5 released by way of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, P. O. field 17. Dordrecht, Holland bought and disbursed within the U. S. A. , Canada, and Mexico via D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Inc. Lincoln development. a hundred and sixty outdated Derby highway, Hingham, Mass. 02043, U. S. A. All Rights Reserved Copyright © 1980 through D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Dordrecht, Holland Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st version 1980 No a part of the cloth secure by means of this copyright become aware of could be reproduced or used in any shape or whatsoever, digital or mechanical, together with photocopying, recording or by way of any informational garage and retrieval process, with no written permission from the copyright proprietor desk OF CONTENTS IX FOREWORD advent xi XXI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS bankruptcy I / THE OBSERVATIONAL foundation OF NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS 1. 1. the significance of the 4 basic Interactions 1 1. 2.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Nuclear Astrophysics: The Formation and the Evolution of Matter in the Universe
2. 1. THE HERTZSPRUNG-RUSSELL DIAGRAM In antiquity, the stars were classified by a scale of magnitudes according to their brightness: the first magnitude corresponding to the brightest stars, and the sixth to the faintest eye-observed stars. Modem astronomers have made this scale quantitative. The measurable quantity is the radiative flux received per surface unit and per time unit on the Earth (this quantity is called the 'brightness' and is labeled E). Due to the response of the eye (logarithmic in apparent brightness), the magnitude scale can be approximated by a logarithmic law in brightness.
Some are rather simple such as OH, H 2 0, CO, or NH 3 , but many are rather complex organic molecules (HC 7 N). Even the ethylic alcohol which has some well known effects on earth has been evidenced in the interstellar medium. Moreover, the interstellar gas is dusty. A significant fraction (1 to 10%) of the interstellar gas is constituted of small solid grains which are called 'dust' by the astronomers. 7, one can see the presence of dust in Orion. This dust component is still poorly understood but considerable work is being undertaken to understand its composition and the effect of this solid component on the physics of the interstellar medium.
Bl ~I en o Cr in the Sun log N Fig. 4. Curves of growth: (a) Theoretical curve of growth. For weak lines the equivalent width varies (b) Empirical curve of like N, for Doppler lines it is constant, and for saturated lines it varies like growth, for Cr in the Sun. Log WI;' is plotted versus a function of the oscillator strength. IN. 012 eV IR ~ 30000 MHz UHF 300 MHz Short wave 3 MHz Long wave 3kHz I Photographic Photoelectric Eye Photoconductive detectors Bolometers Radio window Radio-receivers.